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考前必看干货:AP生物各章重点
作者:管理员    发布于:2017-10-11 17:39:53    文字:【】【】【
  干货福利生物各章重点概念总结精析,你知多少?AP Biology,小编带来重点讲解以及必背词汇,怒拿5分!
  Adaptation 适应性改变
  Any inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring is called an adaptation.
  Evolution 进化
  The gradual change in a species through adaptations over time is evolution.
  Growth 生长
  Growth results in an increase in the amount of living meterial and the formation of new structures.
  Reproduction 繁殖
  One of the most obvious of all the characteristics of life is reproduction, the production of offspring.
  Species 物种
  A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature.
  Stimulus 刺激
  Anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes the organism to react is a stimulus.
  Dependent variable 因变量
  The condition that any changes in it depend on changes made to the independent variable is called dependent variable.
  Independent variable 自变量
  The condition in an experiment that is tested is the independent variable.
  Ecology 生态学
  Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.
  Ecosystem 生态系统
  An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors.
  Niche 小生境
  A niche is all strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment.
  Autotroph 自养生物
  An organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chamical compounds to make energy-rich compounds is a producer, or autotroph.
  Heterotroph 异养生物
  An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on other organisms is called a heterotroph.
  Food chain 食物链
  A food chain is a simple model that species use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. In a food chain, nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and, eventually, to decomposers.
  Limiting factor 限制因素
  A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of an organisms.
  Tolerance 耐受性
  The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance.
  Primary succesion 原生演替
  The colonization if barren land by communities of organisms is called primary succesion. 原生演替( primary succession ) 在完全没有植物的基础上,如海洋上隆起的新岛,火山的溶岩流,新形成的湖沼等地方因植物移居发生的演替
  Carrying capacity 环境容量
  The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its carrying capacity.
  Exponential growth 指数增长
  Exponential growth means that as a populetion get larger, it also grows at a faster rate.
  Biodiversity 生物多样性
  Biodiversity refers to the variety of species in a specific area.
  Endangered species 濒危物种
  A species is considered to be an endangered species when its numbers become so low that extinctions is possible.
  Extinction 灭绝
  Extinction is the disappearance of a species when the last of its members dies.
  Diffusion 扩散
  Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  Organelle 细胞器
  With the development of better mocroscopes, scientists observed that all cells contain small, specialized structures called organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplast and ribosme.
  Nucleus 细胞核
  The central membrane-bound organelle that manages or controls cellular functions is called the nucleus.
  Plasma membrane 细胞质膜
  Plasma membrane is the flexible boundary between the cell and its environment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter what the external conditions are.
  Selective permeability 选择通透性
  Selective permeability is a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out.选择透过性专指细胞膜上膜蛋白的选择透过作用。如选择K+和N+进入细胞膜
  Phospholipid 磷脂
  A phospholipid has a glyceral backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a pgosphate group.含有一个或多个磷酸基的脂质。是构成细胞膜的主要脂分子
  Transport protein 转运蛋白
  Transport proteins move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane.在叶绿体内膜上有很多运输蛋白选择性转运出入叶绿体的分子。叶绿体内膜上所有转运蛋白的运输作用都是靠浓度梯度驱动的,而不是主动运输。这不仅与细胞质膜的运输蛋白不同,也与线粒体内膜的运输系统不同,在线粒体内膜中也有主动运输的转运蛋白
  Chloroplast 叶绿体
  Chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy.植物细胞中由双层膜围成,含有叶绿素能进行光合作用的细胞器。间质中悬浮有由膜囊构成的类囊体,内含叶绿体DNA。
  Chlorophyll 叶绿素
  Chlorophyll traps light energy and gives leaves and stems their green color.植物叶绿体内含有卟啉环的主要光合作用色素。可吸收光能用于光合作用
  Chromatin 染色质
  The master set of directions for making proteins is contained in chromatin, which are strands of the genetic naterial, DNA.间期细胞核中由DNA和组蛋白构成的染色物质
  Endoplasmic reticulum 内质网
  One particular organelle in a eukaryotic cell, the endoplasmic reticulum, is the site of cullular chemical reactions.
  Mitochondria 线粒体
  Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell.
  真核细胞中由双层高度特化的单位膜围成的细胞器。主要功能是通过氧化磷酸化作用合成ATP,为细胞各种生理活动提供能量。
  Ribosome 核糖体
  Ribosomes are the sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of DNA.
  一切活细胞(真核细胞、原核细胞)中均有,它是进行蛋白质合成的重要细胞器,主要由RNA和蛋白质构成, 其惟一功能是按照mRNA的指令将氨基酸合成蛋白质多肽链,所以核糖体是细胞内蛋白质合成的分子机器。
  Active transport 主动运输
  Movement of materials through a membrane against a concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell.指物质逆浓度梯度,在载体的协助下,在能量的作用下运进或运出细胞膜的过程。Na+、K+和Ca2+等离子,都不能自由地通过磷脂双分子层,它们从低浓度一侧运输到高浓度一侧,需要载体蛋白的协助,同时还需要消耗细胞内化学反应所释放的能量。
  Passive transport 被动运输
  Some molecules can pass through the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. The cell uses no energy to move these particles; therefore, this movement of particles across the membrane is classified as passive transport简单扩散①沿浓度梯度(或电化学梯度)扩散;②不需要提供能量;③没有膜蛋白的协助。协助扩散faciliatied diffusion),其运输特点是: ①比自由扩散转运速率高; ②存在最大转运速率; 在一定限度内运输速率同物质浓度成正比。如超过一定限度,浓度再增加,运输也不再增加。因膜上载体蛋白的结合位点已达饱和; ③有特异性,即与特定溶质结合。条件:对应所运输物质的蛋白质,顺浓度差。
  MITOSIS 有丝分裂
  A period of nuclear division. Contains prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase有纺锤体染色体出现,真核细胞的染色质凝集成染色体、复制的姐妹染色单体在纺锤丝的牵拉下分向两极,从而产生两个染色体数和遗传性相同的子细胞核的一种细胞分裂类型。通常划分为前期、中期、后期和末期。这种分裂方式普遍见于高等动植物,是真核细胞分裂产生体细胞的过程。
  Photosynthesis 光合作用
  The process that uses the sun’s energy to make simple sugars is called photosynthesis.
  Electron transport chain 电子传递链
  The highly energized, or excited, electrons which are transferred from the energy in the sunlight are passed from chlorophyll to an electron transport chain, a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane.多种递电子体或递氢体按次序排列的连接情况。生物氧化过程中各物质氧化脱下的氢,大多由辅酶接受,这些还原性辅酶的氢在线粒体内膜上经一系列递电子体(或递氢体)形成的连锁链,逐步传送到氧分子而生成水。此种连锁过程与细胞内呼吸过程密切相关。植物的叶绿体中则存在光合电子传递链以传递电子,完成光合作用中水分解出氧,形成NADPH的过程。
  Cellular respiration 细胞呼吸
  The process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. There are 3 stages of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. The first stage, glycolysis, is anaerobic --- no oxygen is required. The last 2 stages are aerobic and require oxygen to be conpleted.
  物质在细胞内的氧化分解。氧的消耗和二氧化碳、水及ATP)的生成,根本意义给机体提供可利用的能量。分为有氧呼吸和无氧呼吸
  一、有氧呼吸场所:细胞质基质,线粒体
  第一:葡萄糖再酶的作用下分解成丙酮酸和还原态的氢[H]和少量的氧气不需要氧气参与,细胞质基质中完成
  第二:丙酮酸和水在酶的作用下生成CO2和[H]+少量能量不需要氧气参与,在线粒体基质中完成的
  第三(有氧呼吸的重点):[H]和氧气在酶的作用下产生了水,能量
  这阶段需要氧气参与,在线粒体内膜上完成
  无氧呼吸:场所:细胞质基质
  第一阶段和有氧呼吸第一阶段相同,葡萄糖在酶的作用下分解成丙酮酸和还原态的氢[H]和少量的氧气,不需要氧气参与,在细胞质基质中完成
  1、产生乳酸的无氧呼吸方程式:C6H12O6=(酶) 2 C3H6O3(乳酸)+少量能量
  即葡萄糖在酶的作用下生了乳酸和少量能量
  2、产生酒精的无氧呼吸方程式:2 C6H12O6=(酶)2 C2H5OH(酒精)+2CO2 +少量能量
  即葡萄糖在酶的作用下产生了酒精和二氧化碳
  有氧呼吸远大于无氧呼吸,无氧呼吸放出2个ATP
  Glycolysis 糖酵解
  Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three-carbon acid.
  糖酵解是指在氧气不足条件下,葡萄糖或糖原分解为乳酸的过程,此过程中伴有少量ATP的生成。这一过程是在细胞质中进行,不需要氧气,每一反应步骤基本都由特异的酶催化
  Unit 1 The Chemistry of Life 生命中的化学
  ionic bonding 离子键
  covalent bonding 共价键
  hydrogen bonding 氢键
  polar, (non polar)molecule 极性 (非极性)分子
  monomer 单体
  polymer 多聚物
  functional group (有机化学中的)功能团
  carbohydrate 糖类,碳水化合物
  protein 蛋白质
  lipid 脂类
  nucleic acid 核酸
  DNA 脱氧核糖核酸
  RNA 核糖核酸
  enzyme 生物酶
  activation energy 反应起始需要的能量
  Unit 2 The Cell 细胞
  prokaryote 原核生物
  eukaryote 真核生物
  cell membrane 细胞膜
  phospholipid bilayer 磷脂双分子层
  fluid mosaic model (生物膜的)流动镶嵌模型
  diffusion 扩散
  osmosis 渗透
  active transport 主动运输
  exocytosis 胞吐
  endocytosis 胞吞
  organelle 细胞器
  chloroplast 叶绿体
  mitochondria 线粒体
  lysosome 溶酶体
  ribosome 核糖体
  cytoskeleton 细胞骨架
  cellular respiration 细胞呼吸
  fermentation 发酵,无氧呼吸
  glycolysis 糖酵解
  chemiosmosis 化学偶联
  citric acid (kreb’s) cycle 三羧酸循环
  oxidative phosphorylation 氧化磷酸化
  electron transport chain 电子传递链
  lactic acid 乳酸
  photosynthesis 光合作用
  autotrophy 自养生物
  heterotrophy 异养生物
  light reaction 光反应
  calvin cycle (dark reaction) 暗反应
  thylakoid 类囊体
  stroma 叶绿体基质
  carbon fixation 固碳(合成糖)的反应
  Unit 3 Genetics 遗传
  mitosis 有丝分裂
  chromosome 染色体
  interphase 间期
  prophase 前期
  metaphase 中期
  anaphase 后期
  telophase 末期
  cytokinesis 胞质分裂
  meiosis 减数分裂
  haploid 单倍体
  diploid 双倍体
  sister chromatid 姐妹染色单体
  allele 等位基因
  dominant 显性
  recessive 隐性
  phenotype 表现型
  genotype 基因型
  homozygous 纯合子
  heterozygous 杂合子
  P,F1,F2 generation 母代,子一代,子二代
  test cross 测交
  law of segregation 分离定律
  law of independent assortment 自由组合定律
  incomplete dominance 不完全显性
  codominance 共显性
  sex-linked 伴性遗传
  DNA replication DNA复制
  semi-conservative replication 半保留复制
  polymerase 复制酶(延长DNA链)
  replication fork 复制叉
  okazaki fragment 冈崎片段
  mutation 突变
  frame shift 读码框迁移
  transcription 转录
  introns 内含子
  exons 外显子
  translation 翻译
  virus 病毒
  bacteriophage 噬菌体
  retrovirus 逆转录病毒
  bacteria 细菌
  conjugation 接合(通过F因子)
  transduction 转导(通过病毒)
  transformation 转化(通过感受态细胞)
  gene expression 基因表达
  operon 操纵子
  recombinant DNA DNA重组级数
  restriction enzyme 限制性内切酶
  plasmid 质粒
  gel electrophoresis 凝胶电泳
  PCR polymerase chain reaction 聚合酶链反应
  DNA sequencing DNA测序
  Human genome project 人类基因组工程
  Unit 4 Mechanisms of evolution 进化原理
  paleontology 古生物学
  embryology 胚胎学
  comparative anatomy 比较解剖学
  homologous structures 同源性结构
  analogous structures 同功性结构
  artificial selection 人工选择
  natural selection 自然选择
  bottle-neck effect 瓶颈效应
  hardy-weinberg equilibrium H-W群体进化平衡(公式)
  gene drift 基因漂移
  gene flow 基因扩散
  allopatric isolation 地理隔离
  sympatric isolation 非地理隔离
  divergent evolution 发散式进化
  convergent evolution 聚合式进化
  parallel evolution 平行式进化
  gradualism 渐变式进化
  punctuated equilibrium 跃进式进化
  endosymbiotic theory 内共生学说
  Unit 5 Biological diversity 生物分类和多样性
  Three domain 生物三界
  Archaea 古生菌
  thermophile 嗜热菌
  halophile 嗜盐菌
  protist 原生生物
  algae 原生藻
  diatom 硅藻
  fungi 真菌
  moss 苔藓植物
  fern 羊厥植物
  gymnosperm 裸子植物
  angiosperm 被子植物
  bilateral 体对称
  invertebrate 无脊椎动物
  vertebrate 有脊椎动物
  Unit 6 Plant form and function 植物结构和功能
  parenchyma 薄壁组织
  collenchyma 厚角组织
  sclerenchyma 厚壁组织
  vascular tissue 维管组织
  xylem 木质部
  phloem 韧皮部
  sieve tube 筛管细胞
  companion cell 伴随细胞
  root 根
  root hair 根毛
  cortex 皮质
  leaf 叶
  stomata 气孔细胞
  guard cell 保卫细胞
  vascular bundle 维管束鞘
  transpiration 蒸腾作用
  plant hormone 植物激素
  auxin 植物生长素
  apical dominance 顶端优势
  gibberellin 赤霉素
  cytokinin 细胞分裂素
  ethylene 乙烯 催熟剂
  abscisic acid (ABA) 脱落酸
  phototropism 趋光性
  photoperiodism 光周期性
  Unit 7 Animal form and function 动物生理和功能
  homeostasis 动态平衡,稳态
  respiratory System 呼吸系统
  gill 鳃
  lung 肺
  hemoglobin 血红蛋白
  circulatory System 循环系统
  open circulatory system 开放循环系统
  closed circulatory system 闭合循环系统
  heart 心脏
  atria 动脉
  ventricle 静脉
  valve 心瓣
  pulmonary circuit 肺循环
  systemic circuit 体循环
  capillary 毛细血管
  RBC 红细胞
  WBC 白细胞
  platelet 血小板
  plasma 血浆
  excretory system 泌尿系统
  urea 尿素
  uric acid 尿酸
  digestive system 消化系统
  salivary amylase 唾液淀粉酶
  pharynx 咽
  stomach 胃
  pepsin 胃蛋白酶
  small intestine 小肠
  pancreas 胰腺
  liver 肝脏
  gall bladder 胆
  large intestine 大肠
  nervous system 神经系统
  peripheral (神经)末梢区域的
  animal behavior 动物行为
  FAP (sign stimlulus) 应激反应
  imprinting 印随
  classical conditioning 经典条件作用,条件反射
  operant conditioning 操作性条件反射
  habituation 条件适应
  Unit 8 Ecology 生态
  survivorship curves 生存曲线
  exponential growth 指数生长
  carrying capacity (一个环境条件所允许的最大种群数量)负载力
  r-selected, K-selected 见相关课本
  predation 捕食者
  symbiosis 共生
  mutualism 互利共生
  commensalism 非互利共生
  parasitism 寄生
  biome 生境
  tropical rain forest 热带雨林
  savanna 热带稀树大草原
  temperate grassland 温带草原
  temperate deciduous forest 温带落叶林
  desert 沙漠
  taiga 针叶林
  tundra 冻原
  freshwater 淡水生境
  marine 海水生境
  primary producer 初级生产者
  primary consumer 初级消费者
  secondary consumer 次级消费者
  tertiary consumer 三级消费者
  decomposer 分解者
  food web 食物链
  ecological pyramid 食物链金字塔
  eutrophication 富营养化
  carbon cycle 碳循环
  water cycle 水循环
  nitrogen cycle 氮循环
  phosphorus cycle 磷循环
  greenhouse effect, global warming 温室效应
  ozone depletion 臭氧层变薄
  acid rain 酸雨
  loss of habitat & biodiversity 生物多样性受损
  deforestation 森林砍伐和破坏
  introduced species 外来入侵生物
  overexploitation 过度开发
  desertification 沙漠化
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